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1) A species of Nudibranch can forage on hydras and seaweed. Hydras are more nutritious and offers more energy (E1= 30) but have a handling cost (h1=5) and typically a search cost even if common (s1=15). Seaweed has a handling cost (h2) of 1 and no search cost (s2), but is not as nutritious as hydras (E2=5). Which organism will the Nudibranch prefer based on optimality?

a. The seaweed because its handling cost is lower than the handling cost of a hydra.

b. The seaweed because it offers a higher net energy (E/h+s) value.

c. The hydra because it offers a higher net energy (E/h+s) value.

d. The seaweed because it has no search time cost.

e. The hydra because it offers a higher energy (E) value.

2) Match the following genes with the behavior associated with their decreased expression of

for-R/ fru/ Adf1/ the gene that produces NPF/ For-s


a) decreased mating success

b) No visible or observed change

c) decreased range of movement

d) decreased ethanol responsiveness and transfer to long-term memory

e) increased ethanol tolerance

3) In a multigenic behavior that shows a range of phenotypic outcomes (quantitative trait), if the trait values range from 0-10, where would be expect the highest frequency? In other words, what trait value would most individuals most likely have?

a. between 2 and 4

b. between 6 and 8

c. 1

d. between 4 and 6

e. 9

4) Which focal animal was used as an example of how environmental stress can affect all three features: physiology, morphology and behavior?

a. Grizzly bears modifying their fishing strategy in high flow river or stream environments

b.Wrasse changing from female to male

c. Crows choosing a height to drop their prey from

d. Orcas pack hunting

e. Skinks selecting a foraging location based on the presence of predators.