One hundred sixty people were surveyed and asked if they believed in UFOs, ghosts, and Bigfoot.

42 believed in UFOs 45 believed in ghosts

21 believed in Bigfoot 11 believed in UFOs and ghosts

6 believed in ghosts and Bigfoot 4 believed in UFOs and Bigfoot

2 believed in all three

How many people surveyed believed in at least one of these things?

Show your work by creating and sharing an appropriate Venn diagram.

You can use the following free web tool accessed at http://www.classtools.net/education-games-php/venn_intro to create your Venn diagram .

PART 2:

Please see attached for the exercise only numbers:#6, 14, 16, 20, 22, 26, 30, 34, 36, 44

– You must submit full answers and show all work to all required problems to receive full credit. – You can use a word processor to type your work or you can do all work on paper and scan to a digital file to submit.

One hundred sixty people were surveyed and asked if they believed in UFOs, ghosts, and Bigfoot. 42 believed in UFOs 45 believed in ghosts 21 believe

1 Sets It is natural for us to classify items into groups, or sets, and consider how those sets overlap with each other . We can use these sets understand relationships between groups, and to analyze survey data. Basics An art collector might own a collect ion of paintings, while a music lover might keep a collection of CDs. Any collection of items can form a set . Set A set is a collection of distinct objects, called elements of the set . A set can be defined by describing the contents, or by listing the e lements of the set, enclosed in curly brackets . Example 1 Some examples of sets defined by describing the contents: a) The set of all even numbers b) The set of all books written about travel to Chile Some examples of sets defined by listing the eleme nts of the set: a) {1, 3, 9, 12} b) {red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, purple} A set simply specifies the contents; order is not important. The set represented by {1, 2, 3} is equivalent to the set {3, 1, 2}. Notation Commonly, we will use a variable to represent a set, to make it easier to refer to that set later. The symbol ∊ means “is an element of”. A set that contains no elements , { }, is called the empty set and is notated ∅ Example 2 Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} To notate that 2 is element of the set, we’d write 2 ∊ A 2 Sometimes a collection might not contain all the elements of a set. For example, Chris owns three Madonna albums. While Chris’s collection is a set, we can also say it is a subset of the larger set of all Madonna albu ms. Subset A subset of a set A is another set that contains only elements from the set A, but may not contain all the elements of A. If B is a subset of A, we write B ⊆ A A proper subset is a subset that is not identical to the original set – it contai ns fewer elements. If B is a proper subset of A, we write B ⊂ A Example 3 Consider these three sets A = the set of all even numbers B = {2, 4, 6} C = {2, 3, 4, 6} Here B ⊂ A since every element of B is also an even number, so is an element of A. More formally, we could say B ⊂ A since if x ∊ B, then x ∊ A. It is also true that B ⊂ C. C is not a subset of A, since C contains an element, 3, that is not contained in A Example 4 Suppose a set contains the plays “Much Ado About Nothing”, “MacBeth”, and “A Midsummer’s Night Dream”. What is a larger set this might be a subset of? There are many possible answers here. One would be the set of plays by Shakespeare. This is also a subset of the set of all plays ever written. It is also a subset of all Bri tish literature. Try it Now 1 The set A = {1, 3, 5}. What is a larger set this might be a subset of? 3 Union, Intersection, and Complement Commonly sets interact. For example, you and a new roommate decide to have a house party, and you both invite yo ur circle of friends. At this party, two sets are being combined, though it might turn out that there are some friends that were in both sets. Union, Intersection, and Complement The union of two sets contains all the elements contained in either set (o r both sets). The union is notated A ⋃ B. More formally, x ∊ A ⋃ B if x ∊ A or x ∊ B (or both) The intersection of two sets contains only the elements that are in both sets. The intersection is notated A ⋂ B. More formally, x ∊ A ⋂ B if x ∊ A and x ∊ B The complement of a set A contain s everything that is not in the set A. The complement is notated A’ , or Ac, or sometimes ~ A. Example 5 Consider the sets: A = {red, green, blue} B = {red, yellow, orange} C = {red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple} a) Find A ⋃ B The union conta ins all the elements in either set: A ⋃ B = {red, green, blue, yellow, orange} Notice we only list red once. b) Find A ⋂ B The intersection contains all the elements in both sets: A ⋂ B = {red} c) Find Ac ⋂ C Here we’re looking for all the elements tha t are not in set A and are also in C. Ac ⋂ C = {orange, yellow, purple} Try it Now 2 Using the sets from the previous example, find A ⋃ C and Bc ⋂ A Notice that in the example above, it would be hard to just ask for Ac, since everything from the color fuchsia to puppies and peanut butter are included in the complement of the set. For this reason, complements are usually only used with intersections, or when we have a universal set in place. 4 Universal Set A universal set is a set that contains all the elements we are interested in. This would have to be defined by the context. A complement is relative to the universal set, so Ac contains all the elements in the universal set that are not in A. Example 6 a) If we were discussing searching for books, th e universal set might be all the books in the library. b) If we were grouping your Facebook friends, the universal set would be all your Facebook friends. c) If you were working with sets of numbers, the universal set might be all whole numbers, all integers, or all real numbers Example 7 Suppose the universal set is U = all whole numbers from 1 to 9. If A = {1, 2, 4}, then Ac = {3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}. As we saw earlier with the expression Ac ⋂ C, set operations can be grouped together. Grouping symbols can be used like they are with arithmetic – to force an order of operations. Example 8 Suppose H = {cat, dog, rabbit, mouse }, F = {d og, cow , duck, pig , rabbit } W = {duck, rabbit, deer, frog , mouse } a) Find ( H ⋂ F) ⋃ W We start with the intersection: H ⋂ F = {dog, rabbit} Now we union that result with W: ( H ⋂ F) ⋃ W = {dog, duck, rabbit, deer, frog , mouse } b) Find H ⋂ (F ⋃ W) We start with the union: F ⋃ W = {dog, cow, rabbit, duck, pi g, deer, frog , mouse } Now we intersect that result with H: H ⋂ (F ⋃ W) = {dog, rabbit , mouse } c) Find ( H ⋂ F)c ⋂ W We start with the intersection: H ⋂ F = {dog, rabbit} Now we want to find the elements of W that are not in H ⋂ F (H ⋂ F)c ⋂ W = {duck, d eer, frog, mouse} 5 De Morgan’s Laws Augustus De Morgan , 19 th century British mathematician , developed a set of properties known today as De Morgan’s laws. Simply stated, De Morgan showed that t he complement of the union of two sets is the intersection of t heir complements ; likewise, the complement of the intersection of two sets is the union of their complements . De Morgan’s Laws i) The complement of the union of two sets is the intersection of their complements . (A ⋃ B)’ = A’ ⋂ B’ . ii) The complement of the intersection of two sets is the union of their complements . (A ⋂ B)’ = A’ ⋃ B’ . Venn Diagrams To visualize the interaction of sets, John Venn in 1880 thought to use overlapping circles , building on a similar idea used by Leonhard Euler in the 18 th century . These illustrations now called Venn Diagrams . Venn Diagram A Venn diagram represents each set by a circle, usually drawn inside of a containing box representing the universal set. Overlapping areas indicat e elements common to both sets. Basic Venn diagrams can illustrate the interaction of two or three sets. Example 9 Create Venn diagrams to illustrate A ⋃ B, A ⋂ B, and Ac ⋂ B A ⋃ B contains all elements in either set. A ⋂ B contains only those elements in both sets – in the overlap of the circles. A B A ⋃ B 6 Ac will contain all elements not in the set A. Ac ⋂ B will contain t he elements in set B that are not in set A. Example 10 Use a Venn diagram to illustrate ( H ⋂ F)c ⋂ W We’ll start by identifying everything in the set H ⋂ F Now, ( H ⋂ F)c ⋂ W will contain everything not in the set identi fied above that is also in set W. H F W A B A ⋂ B A B Ac ⋂ B 7 Example 1 1 Create an expression to represent the outlined part of the Venn diagram shown. The elements in the outlined set are in sets H and F, but are not in set W. So we could represe nt this set as H ⋂ F ⋂ Wc Try it Now 3 Create an expression to represent the outlined portion of the Venn diagram shown A B C H F W H F W 8 Cardinality Often times we are interested in the number of items in a set or subset. This is called the cardinal ity of the set. Cardinality The number of elements in a set is the cardinality of that set. The cardinality of the set A is often notated as | A| or n( A) Example 1 2 Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and B = { 2, 4, 6, 8}. What is the cardinality of B? A ⋃ B, A ⋂ B? The cardinality of B is 4, since there are 4 elements in the set. The cardinality of A ⋃ B is 7, since A ⋃ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8}, which contains 7 elements. The cardinality of A ⋂ B is 3, since A ⋂ B = {2, 4, 6}, which contains 3 elements. Ex ample 1 3 What is the cardinality of P = the set of English names for the months of the year? The cardinality of this set is 12, since there are 12 months in the year. Sometimes we may be interested in the cardinality of the union or intersection of set s, but not know the actual elements of each set. This is common in surveying. Example 1 4 A survey asks 200 people “ What beverage do you drink in the morning ”, and offers choices: Tea only Coffee only Both coffee and tea Suppose 20 report tea only, 80 report coffee only , 40 report both. How many people drink tea in the morning? How many people drink neither tea nor coffee? This question can most easily be answered by creating a Venn diagram. We can see that we can find the people who drink tea by ad ding those who drink only tea to those who drink both: 60 people. We can also see that those who drink neither are those not contained in the any of the three other groupings, so we can count those by subtracting from the cardinality of the universal set , 200. 200 – 20 – 80 – 40 = 60 people who drink neither. Coffee Tea 20 80 40 9 Example 1 5 A survey asks: Which online services have you used in the last month: Twitter Facebook Have used both The results show 40% of those surveyed have used Twitter , 70% have used Faceboo k, and 20 % have used both . How many people have used neither Twitter nor Facebook? Let T be the set of all people who have used Twitter, and F be the set of all people who have used Facebook. Notice that while the cardinality of F is 70% and the cardina lity of T is 40%, the cardinality of F ⋃ T is not simply 70% + 40%, since that would count those who use both services twice. To find the cardinality of F ⋃ T, we can add the cardinality of F and the cardinality of T, then subtract those in intersection t hat we’ve counted twice. In symbols, n(F ⋃ T) = n( F) + n( T) – n(F ⋂ T) n(F ⋃ T) = 70% + 40% – 20% = 90% Now, to find how many people have not used either service, we’re looking for the cardinality of (F ⋃ T)c . Since the univers al set contains 100% of people and the cardinality of F ⋃ T = 90%, the cardinality of (F ⋃ T)c must be the other 1 0%. The previous example illustrated two important properties Cardinality properties n(A ⋃ B) = n( A) + n( B) – n(A ⋂ B) n(Ac) = n( U) – n(A) Notice that the fi rst property can also be written in an equivalent form by solving for the cardinality of the intersection: n(A ⋂ B) = n( A) + n( B) – n(A ⋃ B) Example 1 6 Fifty students were surveyed, and asked if they were taking a social science (SS), humanities (HM) or a natural science (NS) course the next quarter. 21 were taking a SS course 26 were taking a HM course 19 were taking a NS course 9 were taking SS and HM 7 were taking SS and NS 10 were taking HM and NS 3 were taking all three 7 were taking none 10 How many students are only taking a SS course? It might help to look at a Venn diagram. From the given data, we know that there are 3 students in region e and 7 students in region h. Since 7 students were taking a SS and NS course, we know that n( d) + n( e) = 7. Since we know there are 3 students in region 3, there must be 7 – 3 = 4 students in region d. Similarly, since there are 10 students taking HM and NS, which includes regions e and f, there must be 10 – 3 = 7 students in region f. Since 9 s tudents were taking SS and HM, there must be 9 – 3 = 6 students in region b. Now, we know that 21 students were taking a SS course. This includes students from regions a, b, d, and e. Since we know the number of students in all but region a, we can dete rmine that 21 – 6 – 4 – 3 = 8 students are in region a. 8 students are taking only a SS course. Try it Now 4 One hundred fifty people were surveyed and asked if they believed in UFOs, ghosts, and Bigfoot. 43 believed in UFOs 44 believed in ghost s 25 believed in Bigfoot 10 believed in UFOs and ghosts 8 believed in ghosts and Bigfoot 5 believed in UFOs and Bigfoot 2 believed in all three How many people surveyed believed in at least one of these things? Try it Now Answers 1. There are s everal answers: The set of all odd numbers less than 10. The set of all odd numbers. The set of all integers. The set of all real numbers. 2. A ⋃ C = {red, orange, yellow, green, blue purple} Bc ⋂ A = {green, blue} SS HM NS a b c d e f g h 11 3. A ⋃ B ⋂ Cc 4. Starting with th e intersection of all three circles, we work our way out. Since 10 people believe in UFOs and Ghosts, and 2 believe in all three ; that leaves 8 that believe in only UFOs and Ghosts. We work our way out, filling in all the regions. Once we have, we can a dd up all those regions, getting 91 people in the union of all three sets. This leaves 150 – 91 = 59 who believe in none. Equal and Equivalent Sets Often the terms equal and equivalent are used to describe sets. These two terms are often confused as being the same, however, they have a totally different meaning . Equal Sets Two sets are equal if they both include the same exact elements. Equivalent Sets Two sets are equ ivalent if they have equal cardinalities. Example 1 7 Let A = {2 , 4, 6, 8}, B = { 6, 2, 8, 4}, and C = {6, 3, 5, 1} . Sets A and B are equal since they both include the same elements : 2, 4, 6, 8 . Sets A and B are also equivalent since they both have the same cardinality , n( A) = n( B) = 4 . Sets A and C are not equal since they incl ude different elements. Sets A, B, and C are equivalent to one another since they all have the same cardinality, n( A) = n(B) = n( C) = 4. Cartesian Product of Sets The Cartesian product of two sets A and B, denoted by A × B, is the set of all possible ordered pairs whose first comp onent is a member of the first set and whose second component is a member of the second set . UFOs Ghosts Bigfoot 30 8 28 3 2 6 14 59 12 Example 1 8 Let A = { 6, 11 } and B = { 0, 1, 2}. Find the Cartesian product of sets A and B. The Cartesian p roduct of A and B is as follows: A × B = { {6, 0}, (6, 1} , {6, 2}, {11, 0}, {11, 1}, {11, 2} } 13 Exercises 1. List out the elements of the set “The letters of the word Mississipi” 2. List out the elements of the s et “Months of the year” 3. Write a verbal description of the set {3, 6, 9} 4. Write a verbal description of the set {a, i, e, o, u} 5. Is {1, 3, 5} a subset of the set of odd integers? 6. Is {A, B, C} a subset of the set of letters of the alphabet? Fo r problems 7 -12, consider the sets below, and indicate if each statement is true or false. A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} B = {1, 3, 5} C = {4, 6} U = {numbers from 0 to 10} 7. 3 ∊ B 8. 5 ∊ C 9. B ⊂ A 10. C ⊂ A 11. C ⊂ B 12. C ⊂ D Using the sets from abo ve, and treating U as the Universal set, find each of the following: 13. A ⋃ B 14. A ⋃ C 15. A ⋂ C 16. B ⋂ C 17. Ac 18. Bc Let D = {b, a, c, k}, E = {t, a, s, k}, F = {b, a, t, h}. Using these sets, find the following: 19. Dc ⋂ E 20. Fc ⋂ D 21. (D ⋂ E) ⋃ F 22. D ⋂ (E ⋃ F) 23. ( F ⋂ E)c ⋂ D 24. ( D ⋃ E)c ⋂ F Create a Venn diagram to illustrate each of the following: 25. ( F ⋂ E) ⋃ D 26. ( D ⋃ E)c ⋂ F 27. ( F c ⋂ E c) ⋂ D 28. ( D ⋃ E) ⋃ F Write an expression for the shaded region. 29. 30. A B C A B C 14 31. 32. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} B = {1, 3, 5} C = {4, 6}. Find the cardinality of the given set. 33. n( A) 34. n( B) 35. n( A ⋃ C) 36. n( A ⋂ C) The Venn diagram here shows the cardinality of each set. Use this in 37 -40 to find the cardinality of given set. 37. n( A ⋂ C) 38. n( B ⋃ C) 39. n( A ⋂ B ⋂ Cc) 40. n( A ⋂ Bc ⋂ C) 41. If n(G) = 20, n(H) = 30, n(G ⋂ H) = 5, find n( G ⋃ H) 42. If n(G) = 5, n(H) = 8, n( G ⋂ H) = 4, find n( G ⋃ H) 43. A survey was given asking whether they watch movies at home from Netflix, Redbox, or a video store. Use the results to determine how many people use Redbox. 52 on ly use Netflix 62 only use Redbox 24 only use a video store 16 use only a video store and Redbox 48 use only Netflix and Redbox 30 use only a video store and Netflix 10 use all three 25 use none of these A B C A B C A B C 7 3 5 4 1 2 8 6 15 44. A survey asked buyers whether colo r, size, or brand influenced their choice of cell phone. The results are below. How many people were influenced by brand? 5 only said color 8 only said size 16 only said brand 20 said only color and size 42 said only color and brand 53 said only siz e and brand 102 said all three 20 said none of these 45. Use the given information to complete a Venn diagram, then determine: a) how many students have seen exactly one of these movies, and b) how many had seen only Star Wars . 18 had seen The Matr ix (M) 24 had seen Star Wars (SW) 20 had seen Lord of the Rings (LotR) 10 had seen M and SW 14 had seen LotR and SW 12 had seen M and LotR 6 had seen all three 46. A survey asked people what alternative transportation modes they use. Using the da ta to complete a Venn diagram, then determine: a) what percent of people only ride the bus, and b) how many people don’t use any alternate transportation. 30% use the bus 20% ride a bicycle 25% walk 5% use the bus and ride a bicycle 10% ride a bicy cle and walk 12% use the bus and walk 2% use all three