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process for planning communication management, as referred to in Figure 3.1 and 3.3 of the textbook, and in the section beginning with Communication and the Project Plan (page 51 to 57) Matrix Format This type of organizational charts are matrix-based charts with column headers representing the project team members and row headers representing the project activities or work packages those team members are responsible for. This matrix chart is also called a responsibility assignment matrix (RAM). The cells of the matrix represent the roles that individual team members will play for the work packages they are responsible for. A RAM chart is commonly known as a RACI chart (where R stands for responsible, A is stands for accountable, C stands for consulted, and I stands for informed). Table 2.1 shows an example of a RACI Responsibility Assignment Matrix. Other commonly used forms of a RAM chart are RASCI and CAIRO (where R stands for responsible, A stands for accountable, S stands for support, C stands for consulting, I stands for informed, and O stands for omitted or out of loop): R = Who actually completes the task. A = Ultimate ownership, with yes or no authority; makes the final decision. C = Consulted prior to an action or final decision; involves two-way communication. I = Who needs to be informed after a decision or action has been taken; involves one-way communication. S = Who supports the task to completion. O = Someone who is not part of the task (helps to enhance the clarity of roles and responsibilities). Table 2.2 summarizes these common types of RAM charts. Table 2.2: Common Types of RAM Charts Note: Numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 depict the relative position of the letter representing responsibility in the sequence of acronym letters. For example, the “R” in RACI is at the first position in the sequence, A is at the second position, C is at the third position, and I is at the fourth position. Text-Oriented Format Text-oriented formats are utilized to depict position description, duties, authority, qualifications, and competencies. Sometimes, such a document is also called a Duty Statement, and it is commonly used in the recruitment process. Figure 2.4 depicts a typical text-oriented format-based document. Figure 2.4 Typical Text-Oriented Format-Based Document Develop the Human Resource Management Plan Resources are needed to complete the project work, which include humans, materials, and equipment. The human resource management plan deals with management of the human resources and guides how project human resources should be identified, acquired, developed, managed, and released. Like other core project plans, this plan also is part of the overarching project management plan and includes, but is not limited to, project roles and responsibilities, project organization charts, and a staffing management plan. • Project roles and responsibilities: Project roles and responsibilities listing including role, authority, responsibility, and competency of project human resources. • Role: It is the function of a resource in the project such as project manager, business analyst, data architect, and so on. • Authority: The authority of a human resource reflects her right to authorize the use of project resources, to make decisions, to sign approvals, and to accept deliverables. • Responsibility: Responsibility of a person on a project refers to the project work duties assigned to that person. • Competency: Competency of a project team member translates to his skill and capacity required to perform the assigned duties within the project framework, methodology, and constraints. • Project organization charts: A project organization chart is a hierarchical graphic depiction of the project team members and their reporting relationships. Refer to Figure 2.3 for an example of a typical project organization chart. • Staffing management plan: The staffing management plan is a part of the human resource management plan. It describes how and when project team members are to be acquired and when they are to be released. A typical staffing management plan includes, but is not limited to, staff acquisition, resource calendars, staff release plan, staff training needs, staff recognition and rewards, compliance, and safety. • Staff acquisition strategies: The staffing management plan includes the staff acquisition strategies. It answers the following questions: 1. What type of project team members are needed on the project? a. Which project team members will be the full-time permanent staff? b. Which project team members will be contracted on a temporary basis? 2. Where can you acquire the sources for the project team? a. Which project team members can be acquired from within the organization? b. Which project team members needs be acquired from external sources? 3. What work locations will the project team members work at? 4. What are the costs associated with each level of expertise? 5. What assistance can the human resource department and functional managers provide to the project management team in the acquisition of the project staff? • Resource calendars: Resource calendars identify the working timeframes for each project resource. The staffing management plan includes the resource calendars as well as the information on the timing when the acquisition of the project staff should start. A resource histogram is the tool that is commonly used by the project managers to create a graphical view of the resource allocations across various months of the project calendar. Figure 2.5 illustrates a typical resource histogram. Figure 2.5 Typical Resource Histogram • Staff release plan: Determines the method and timing of releasing the project team members. • Staff training plan: Determines the staff training needs to fulfill the project team members’ skill gaps, if any. • Staff recognition and rewards: Staff recognition and rewards are part of the develop project team process of the human resource management plan. These are particularly important to promote and reinforce desired behaviors and boost staff morale and productivity. The staffing management plan discusses the criteria for staff recognition and rewards on the project. • Compliance: Strategies to ensure staff compliance with applicable government regulations, union contracts, and organizational human resource policies, standards, and guidelines. • Safety: Safety policies, standards, and procedures. Tip Following are tips for effective human resource management: • Start this process early and continue iteratively throughout the project life cycle. • Track and manage the risks and issues pertaining to this process in a timely manner. • Capture and archive lessons learned regularly. • Remember: The goal of this process is to plan for effective human resource management. Summary The mind map in Figure 2.6 summarizes the project human resource management planning process.
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Course Project Instructions Part 3: Communication Plan For the project selected in Unit I, create a simple communication management plan. Your plan should follow the process for planning communication management, as referred to in Figure 3.1 and 3.3 of the textbook, and in the section beginning with Communication and the Project Plan (page 51 to 57) (SEE SECOND ATTACHMENT) in the eBook, Project Management: A Common-Sense Guide to the PMBOK Program, Part Two – Plan and Execution. Consider the following questions: What will I need to communicate (project progress, other)? To whom will I need to communicate (stakeholders, contacts)? When will I need to communicate (timing, frequency)? Where will I communicate (location of the sender, receivers)? How will I communicate (media)? Why am I communicating (analyze all reports both planned and ad hoc to ensure rationale for communication effort is sound)? How do my planned communications close any gaps between project objectives and stakeholder expectations? How would such gaps be evaluated and fed back into the project communications cycle? Finally, in addition to writing out your strategies and responses to the questions, summarize the who, what, when, where, how, and why into a quick reference table. For example, consider the building the library scenario in the earlier unit. The “who” would be the stakeholders such as members of the community, future patrons of the library to name just a couple. The “what”  would include information regarding the progress of the construction, key milestones, and perhaps some announcements regarding the planned scope of the completed library (such as types of media available for checkout, services to be offered, etc.). Such a table is often used as a succinct at-a-glance form of the communications plan. As a guide to depth, your Communication Management Plan should be a minimum of two pages in length. You may either create your table in Word and include it at the end of the document, or submit it as a separate Excel file. Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, including in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.
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Discussion Board Consider a time in your work experience when you had to lead a team or a formal project. Describe what forms of communication you used to plan, lead, and organize your team. Also, describe what communication media you used as well as which you preferred. Finally, before communicating with your team, did you create a communications plan? Why, or why not?