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There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly. Please read all the lecture materials, and all 3 articles/required readings. These 30 multichoice questions are based on these lectures and articles/required readings

There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly. Please read all the lecture materials, and all 3 articles/required rea
EDUC101 Early Explanations of Learning Lecture 2.2 Valerie Sotardi, PhD Senior Lecturer of Educational Psychology & Quantitative Research On Today’s Agenda • Early Explanations of Learning – Contiguity – Classical conditioning • Critiquing classical c onditioning • Is classical conditioning “learning?” Early Explanations of Learning • Contiguity & Classical Conditioning – Aristotle (our empiricist from Lecture 2.1) • Wwe remember things: 1. When they are similar, 2. When they contrast, and 3. When they are contiguous • Principle of contiguity: – W henever two or more sensations occur together often enough, they will become associated Early Explanations of Learning • Classical conditioning argues that: – “Learning” occurs through contiguity – This occurs by associating two stimuli to produce a new “learned” response – The response is an automatic emotional or physiological reaction (such as fear, muscle tension, salivation, or sweating) Early Explanations of Learning • Classical conditioning (Pavlov) – Russian physiologist in the 1920s – Originally focused on the digestive system of dogs, but he had some interesting setbacks in his experiments… Early Explanations of Learning Applying Classical Conditioning Critiquing Classical Conditioning Key Strengths Key Weaknesses We learn from our environment, but… We can “encourage” people to do things, but … Can be used to reduce certain additions and phobias, but… Can be used to create changes in our lives, but.. . Is Classical Conditioning “Learning?” Learning… Classical Conditioning… 1. Is active 2. Builds on prior knowledge 3. Requires motivation and cognitive engagement 4. Is situated within an authentic context 5. Occurs in a complex, social environment Takeaway Points from Lecture 2.2 • Association is a powerful process that can help contribute to learning • Classical conditioning has several strengths and weaknesses, all which should be understood See you Monday!
There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly. Please read all the lecture materials, and all 3 articles/required rea
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There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly. Please read all the lecture materials, and all 3 articles/required rea
  Copyright Warning Notice  This material is protected by copyright and has been copied by and solely for  the educational purposes of the University under license.  You may not sell,  alter or further reproduce or distribute any part of this material to any other  person.  Where provided to you in electronic format,  you may only print  from it for your own private study and research.  Failure to comply with the  terms of this warning may expose you to legal action for copyright  infringement and/or disciplinary action by the University. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly. Please read all the lecture materials, and all 3 articles/required rea
EDUC 101 Mental Processes of Learning Lecture 3.2 Valerie Sotardi, PhD Senior Lecturer of Educational Psychology & Quantitative Research On Today’s Agenda • Cognitive views of learning: – Information processing model – Metacognition – Concept learning – Problem solving – Learning strategies Introduction to Cognitive Views • Cognitive psychologists assume… – that mental processes exist – that they can be studied scientifically – that humans are active participants of their own acts of thinking • Cognitivists differ in their assumptions about what is learned Information Processing Model What does a memory look like? • The nodes in the network are distributed around the brain, and activated by the hippocampus and frontal lobes. Metacognition • Defined as one’s ability to control his/her cognition • John Flavell proposed two key components of metacognition: 1. Knowledge of Cognition • Knowing strengths and weaknesses • Knowing preferences and skills 2. Regulation of Cognition • Planning • Monitoring • Adjusting • Evaluating Metacognition • Being metacognitive and helping learners… – Person variables – Task variables – Strategy variables • “ I know that I (person variable) have difficulty with word problems (task variable), so I will answer the computational problems first and save the word problems for last (strategy variable).” Metacognition • When metacognitive strategies are explicitly taught: – Support information retrieval – B uilds learning independence – Implement strategies when they have difficulty remembering how to solve a particular problem Concept Learning • Concept learning – What is a concept? • A concept is a category used to group similar events, ideas, objects or people • Concepts help us organise vast amounts of information into manageable units Concept Learning • What about the concept of a “bird?” • Prototypes – Best representative of its category (e.g., parrot) • Exemplars – Actual memories used to compare with an item to see if that item belongs in the same category – Prototypes typically develop from exemplars • Schemas – Abstract mental structures that help us organise knowledge Concept Learning • Discovery learning (Bruner) – Wanted to encourage concept learning and the development of thinking – Discovery learning: students solve problems, make informed guesses, and discover basic principles for themselves Problem Solving • Problem: – An initial state (the current situation) – “ T ranslation” because you translate a problem into something you understand • Solving the Problem involves: – A goal (the desired outcome), – A path for reaching the goal (including operations or activities that move you towards the goal) Problem Solving • Schema – driven problem solving: – Recognising a problem as a disguised version of an old problem for which one already has a solution • Search – based routes: – Algorithms (step by step procedures) – Heuristics (strategies that might lead to the optimal solution); shortcuts Learning Strategies Surface Learning • Concentrate purely on task requirements • Accept information and ideas passively • Memorise facts and procedures • Ignore key points or patterns • Fail to reflect on an underlying purpose or strategy Deep Learning • Aim to understand the material for themselves • Interact critically with content • Relate ideas to previous knowledge and experience • Find ways to integrate ideas • Relate evidence to conclusions • Examine the logic of information and arguments Have a Great Day!
There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly. Please read all the lecture materials, and all 3 articles/required rea
  Copyright Warning Notice  This material is protected by copyright and has been copied by and solely for  the educational purposes of the University under license.  You may not sell,  alter or further reproduce or distribute any part of this material to any other  person.  Where provided to you in electronic format,  you may only print  from it for your own private study and research.  Failure to comply with the  terms of this warning may expose you to legal action for copyright  infringement and/or disciplinary action by the University. CHAPTER FOUR INFORMATION PROCESSING AND EFFECTIVE LEARNING 111 , ways in which informafi6n is organised, sequenced and represented internally. ; .,The computer is an appropriate model, therefore, to illustrate the integrated ‘components of the information processing model through which a parallel is drawn between the functional components of the computer and psychological / structures (Flavell 1985; Kail & Bisanz 1992; Lohman 1989 and 2000; McVee, · · · Dunsmore & Gavalek 2005). Flavell states that in this approach the human mind is conceived of as a complex cognitive system analogous in some ways to a digital computer. Like a computer, the system manipulates or processes information coming in from the environment or already stored within the system. It processes the information in a variety of ways: encoding, recoding or decoding it; comparing or combining it with other information; storing it in memory or retrieving it from memory; bringing it into or out of focal attention or conscious awareness, and so on. Computer simulation is also used by some information processing psychologists to model their view of how human information processing occurs. In artificial intelligence research, for example, the effectiveness with which elements of an artificial intelligence program captures elements of human information processing is evaluated. If the match is high, researchers argue that they have captured in a physical model what they theorised was occurring with human mental processing (Kail & Bisanz 1992; Schank & Towle 2000). • , – — :–.— B E NEF IT S O F I NF OR .-. � F CON CEP TU Aus,tt [� � :,� O CE S S IN G A S A WAYIt Pr ov/ de s a c G t h at en a ble s o n ce p tu a// sa t/ on of l . be h av : . Ps ych olog y t o m earn mg 70Urtst co . ov e aw a fr, foc usi ng att en t1:i e p tt o n s of le arn/ ng; o_ m • It Pr ov/ d e s a un/ fie ;; m en t al re p re se n ta ti on s an d de scrib in g learn i: a me wor k for exa mi ni n . • I t Prov id, . ‘9, ‘9 e s s tt m u lu s F. a n d t hi nk in , o r t he stud f c o g n ‘ti ‘9 s tra te gi es th :V o learn in g ‘ Ve str ate gies , e te ac hi ng of of co g ni tive str at e ie a � d t he as se ssme n t Pe r fo rm an ce o ‘9 :s tn t h e con t P”‘ f • n ac a de m. ..,., o I t Pr ovi de l c ta s ks i n t he :s sti mulus for stu d . . n at ur al env iron :Vtn g le arn in g oc cu rs . me nts Whe re l . /5 e arn mg {, ource: B ase d on Ma ye r 1996) Each of the components of a computer has a specific function to perform, and if any one component is faulty the computer will be functioning less than optimally. Indeed, if a major fault is present in any component the computer will not be able to function at all. The ability of a computer to manipulate and process the input depends on the quality of the computer software program and the processing size of the central processing unit (CPU). The CPU for most microcomputers enables users to analyse large data sets with complex statistical methods, to use electronic mail, and to word process with only several dozen basic instructions. In order to retain a permanent record of our work on the computer, we need to save the file. This file may be stored in a variety of forms (for example, hard disk, thumb drive and DVD) and the quantity that can be stored depends on the capacity of the disks, and these are getting larger by the day! It is essential to save and store the information in a retrievable form. Lots of us have had disastrous experiences such as a sudden electrical surge, a clumsy foot dislodging the power cord, the wrong cut-and-paste procedure or a system fault, only to see our hard work lost before we could make a permanent copy. Finally, having successfully processed the material and stored it, we need to be able to retrieve the file for printing. Some of us have had the unlucky experience of safely storing our work on a hard disk, only to forget the name of the file under which the material was stored. Of course, the material is useless unless it can be retrieved in some form. The components of the human information processing system Forming perceptions As you can see, the computer is an integrated system, and if any one component is malfunctioning or inefficient the system will be less effective. The computer analogy is actually quite a neat model of one v iew of what happens conceptually when a person learns. In Figure 4.1 the computer components are shown paralleled with the components of the information processing model. The components of the human system in the diagram are also integrated, and must function effectively for the system as a whole to be effective. Sensory receptors, working memory and long-term memory InFigure4.2 thecomponents of the human information processing system are presented and described. The sensory receptors (such as our eyes, ears, touch, smell and taste) are the senses through which we perceive stimuli. Depending on an individual’s orientation, particular stimuli are selected for attention through the sensory register or CPU. The working memory is that part of the person’s mind that processes information. Some researchers consider t11at the working Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly. Please read all the lecture materials, and all 3 articles/required rea
EDUC101 A Brief History of L earning Lecture 2.1 Valerie Sotardi, PhD Senior Lecturer of Educational Psychology & Quantitative Research Recap from Lecture 1.2  Learning, education, training, and schools  Five key elements of the learning process? 1. Is active 2. Builds on prior knowledge 3. Requires motivation and cognitive engagement 4. Is situated within an authentic context 5. Occurs in a complex, social environment  Education has cultural, social, and personal functions, and may/may not relate to school and training On Today’s Agenda  Historical views of education • Consider: What are some of the common themes across historical examples? Confucius (551 – 479 BCE) • Holistic view of education • Emphasised a “love of learning” • People should learn the six arts • Rejected education as a knowledge economy • Emphasised the influences of family and community Seriously Old σχολή (496 – 322 BCE) • “School” derives from Greek σχολή (scholē ) – Originally meaning “leisure” – Later “a group in which lectures were given” Philosophical Views of Learning Oral Tradition in Learning Roman Catholic Church (500 – 1500 CE) Philosophical Views of Learning • Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) – Ideas exist within human beings prior to experience – Proposed environment + mind  behaviour – Massively influential in psychology for over 300 years • Behaviourism • Cognitivism Philosophical Views of Learning • Jean -Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778) – One of the first to suggest that education shapes the child – Children should be allowed to develop naturally – Published Emile Philosophical Views of Learning • Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804) – Modernised Plato’s rationalism – Suggested we are born with some knowledge (innate) – Recognised that the mind was a part of the thinking process Psychological Views of Learning • 19 th century: – Brought about the scientific study of learning – Shout outs to Descartes, Kant, and Darwin • 20 th century: – Primary focus on behaviourism and cognition Psychological Views of Learning • Edward Thorndike (1874 – 1949) – Scientific approach to the study of learning – Association between sense impressions and impulses to act: stimulus -response – Measuring students as a “sorting hat” Progressive Learning Theories • John Dewey (1859 – 1952) – The teacher’s goal is to understand: • The demands of the discipline • The needs of the child • To provide learning experiences which enable the student to uncover the curriculum Progressive Learning Theories • Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952) – Students learn through carefully chosen activities – “The task of the teacher becomes that of preparing a series of cultural activities spread over a specially prepared environment and then refraining from obtrusive interference.” Common Themes across History • What are some of the common themes you see across the ideas we discussed today? – Confucius – Socrates, Plato, Aristotle – Thomas Aquinas (Roman Catholic Church) – Descartes – Rousseau – Kant – Skinner, Thorndike – Dewey – Montessori Takeaway Points from Lecture 2.1  Education has been contested for a long time  Purposes depend on the time period, social class, cultural customs, and individual differences  The learner is expected to perform tasks based on what an education is intended to do  Thus, how we acquire knowledge and skills depend on the environment around us See you Thursday!
There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly. Please read all the lecture materials, and all 3 articles/required rea
EDUC101 A Brief History of L earning Lecture 2.1 Valerie Sotardi, PhD Senior Lecturer of Educational Psychology & Quantitative Research Recap from Lecture 1.2  Learning, education, training, and schools  Five key elements of the learning process? 1. Is active 2. Builds on prior knowledge 3. Requires motivation and cognitive engagement 4. Is situated within an authentic context 5. Occurs in a complex, social environment  Education has cultural, social, and personal functions, and may/may not relate to school and training On Today’s Agenda  Historical views of education • Consider: What are some of the common themes across historical examples? Confucius (551 – 479 BCE) • Holistic view of education • Emphasised a “love of learning” • People should learn the six arts • Rejected education as a knowledge economy • Emphasised the influences of family and community Seriously Old σχολή (496 – 322 BCE) • “School” derives from Greek σχολή (scholē ) – Originally meaning “leisure” – Later “a group in which lectures were given” Philosophical Views of Learning Oral Tradition in Learning Roman Catholic Church (500 – 1500 CE) Philosophical Views of Learning • Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) – Ideas exist within human beings prior to experience – Proposed environment + mind  behaviour – Massively influential in psychology for over 300 years • Behaviourism • Cognitivism Philosophical Views of Learning • Jean -Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778) – One of the first to suggest that education shapes the child – Children should be allowed to develop naturally – Published Emile Philosophical Views of Learning • Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804) – Modernised Plato’s rationalism – Suggested we are born with some knowledge (innate) – Recognised that the mind was a part of the thinking process Psychological Views of Learning • 19 th century: – Brought about the scientific study of learning – Shout outs to Descartes, Kant, and Darwin • 20 th century: – Primary focus on behaviourism and cognition Psychological Views of Learning • Edward Thorndike (1874 – 1949) – Scientific approach to the study of learning – Association between sense impressions and impulses to act: stimulus -response – Measuring students as a “sorting hat” Progressive Learning Theories • John Dewey (1859 – 1952) – The teacher’s goal is to understand: • The demands of the discipline • The needs of the child • To provide learning experiences which enable the student to uncover the curriculum Progressive Learning Theories • Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952) – Students learn through carefully chosen activities – “The task of the teacher becomes that of preparing a series of cultural activities spread over a specially prepared environment and then refraining from obtrusive interference.” Common Themes across History • What are some of the common themes you see across the ideas we discussed today? – Confucius – Socrates, Plato, Aristotle – Thomas Aquinas (Roman Catholic Church) – Descartes – Rousseau – Kant – Skinner, Thorndike – Dewey – Montessori Takeaway Points from Lecture 2.1  Education has been contested for a long time  Purposes depend on the time period, social class, cultural customs, and individual differences  The learner is expected to perform tasks based on what an education is intended to do  Thus, how we acquire knowledge and skills depend on the environment around us See you Thursday!
There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly. Please read all the lecture materials, and all 3 articles/required rea
EDUC 101 Kia ora! Our Course Introduction Lecture 1.1 Valerie Sotardi, PhD Senior Lecturer of Educational Psychology & Quantitative Research Whakataka te hau ki te uru Whakataka te hau ki te tonga Kia mākinakina ki uta , Kia mātaratara ki tai. E hī ake ana te atakura He tio , he huka , he hauhū Tihei ! Mauri ora! Get ready for the westerly Be prepared for the southerly It will be icy cold inland, and icy cold on the shore. May the dawn rise red -tipped On ice, on snow, on frost Join! Gather! Karakia Timatanga Whakataka te hau ki te uru Whakataka te hau ki te tonga Kia mākinakina ki uta , Kia mātaratara ki tai. E hī ake ana te atakura He tio , he huka , he hauhū Tihei ! Mauri ora! Get ready for the westerly Be prepared for the southerly It will be icy cold inland, and icy cold on the shore. May the dawn rise red -tipped On ice, on snow, on frost May the force be with you! Karakia Timatanga Welcome to the Whānau! On Today’s Agenda • Overview of the course • Brief introduction to learning About Yours Truly!  Valerie Sotardi, PhD  [email protected]  Lecturer of Educational Psychology & Quantitative Research  Professional interests:  Learning, motivation, and academic achievement  Student stress and coping strategies across the lifespan  Assessment anxiety, student perfectionism (fear of failure)  Children’s rights in education  Personal interests:  Salsa dancing, karate, photography, gaming Accessing LEARN http://learn.canterbury.ac.nz [email protected] What is a Course C oordinator? • All course -related administrative stuff: – Enrolment – Timetabling – Tutorial allocations – Special accommodations – Assessments (requests for extensions, extra support, special considerations) – LEARN access difficulties – “Where should I go for…?” • Easiest to reach me by email. Accessing Email Purpose of the Course An Introduction to Learning An Introduction to Learning An Introduction to Learning An Introduction to Learning The concept of ako “In a reciprocal learning relationship, teachers are not expected to know everything. In particular, ako suggests that each member of the classroom or learning setting brings knowledge with them from which all are able to learn .” ( Keown , Parker, & Tiakiwai , 2005) What makes a Q uestion “Good?” What makes a Q uestion “Good?” What makes a Q uestion “Good?” What makes a Q uestion “Good?” What makes a Q uestion “Good?” On Today’s Agenda • Overview of the course • Brief introduction to learning Start your Lecture 1.2 when ready!
There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly. Please read all the lecture materials, and all 3 articles/required rea
EDUC 101 On Operant Conditioning Lecture 3.1 Please have the Dunlosky (2013) article I sent via the LEARN News message. Valerie Sotardi, PhD Senior Lecturer of Educational Psychology & Quantitative Research Pause for “Self – Regulated” Learning • Regulate = control, monitor • SRL is like taking control over our actions so that we are able to reach our learning goals • Connection to note -taking Pause for “Self – Regulated” Learning Classical to Operant Conditioning • Operant Conditioning (Skinner, 1950s) – Argued that classical conditioning accounts only for a very small portion of learned behaviours – Contended that most learning comes from operants , not respondents Feeling nerdy? Search online for “Project Pigeon” Classical to Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning • Modifying behaviour by altering its consequences – Two Broad Types of Consequences: 1. Rewards 2. Punishments • In classroom situations, how do teachers use rewards and punishments? – What are some of the types of rewards you received at school? – What are some of the different types of punishments? Reinforcement & Punishment • Rewards – Technically referred to as “reinforcers” • Any consequence that strengthens the behaviour it follows • Thus, reinforced behaviours (rewards) increase the frequency or duration • Whenever you see a behaviour persisting or increasing over time, you can assume the consequences of that behaviour are reinforcers for the individual involved • A  B  Reinforcer (C)  Strengthened or Repeated B ehaviour (effect) Reinforcement & Punishment • Positive reinforcement : – Goal: • To increase behaviour – Achieved by: • Adding pleasant stimulus after “good” behaviour – Example? Reinforcement & Punishment • Negative reinforcement : – Goal: • To increase behaviour – Achieved by: • Removing an unpleasant stimulus after “good” behaviour – Example ? Reinforcement & Punishment • Punishment – Use of unpleasant stimulus to weaken or suppress behaviour – We actually have two types of punishments… Reinforcement & Punishment • Punishment presentation – Goal : • To decrease behaviour – Achieved by: • Adding an unpleasant stimulus after “bad” behaviour – Example ? Reinforcement & Punishment • Punishment removal (also called response cost) – Goal : • To decrease behaviour – Achieved by: • Removing an pleasant stimulus after “bad” behaviour – Example ? Reinforcement & Punishment Increase Behaviour (Do it Again!) Decrease Behaviour (Don’t do it Again!) Desirable Stimulus (We like it!) Undesirable Stimulus (We don’t like it!) Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment Presentation Punishment Removal Reinforcement & Punishment • Reinforcement Schedules 1. Continuous reinforcement schedule • Reinforced for every correct response • Effective when learning a new behaviour Reinforcement & Punishment • Reinforcement Schedules 2. Intermittent reinforcement schedule • Reinforced by varying correct responses • Effective when trying to maintain skills • Interval schedule: reinforcement based on the length of time between reinforcers (pop quiz) • Ratio schedule: reinforcement based on the number of responses between reinforcers (ten maths problems for homework) Takeaway Points of Lecture 3.1 • Operant conditioning helps us to understand connections between behaviour and the world around us • But this theory does not assume anything about the person’s thoughts or feelings about the situation! Keep Being Awesome!